Megasquirt Planning for a 1999+ 2RZ or 3RZ

Pre-Buy information about megasquirting a 2RZ or 3RZ:

Note, this is for “my” version of the 2000 2RZ.  There are also CA spec and newer motors, which are coil-on-plug, so your mileage may vary.

 

Where are the manuals?

 

What are the differences in Megasquirt units?

 

 

When putting megasquirt in any vehicle you need to figure out 3 basic categories.  Once you sort out these categories, it makes your choice of megasquirt unit much easier:

  1. Tach in – or your ignition input circuit.  Are you doing crank trigger?   Reading from a distributor?  Doing both cam and crank sensors
  2. Injection out – How will you drive your injectors?  Low impedance?  High impedance? Batch injection or Sequential?
  3. Ignition out – What type of spark will you use?  A single coil?  High current, low current?

You need to understand all of these things, have a design for them, and understand WHICH megasquirt unit supports your design.   Within that megasquirt unit, the design for those particular options make change the circuits.  Each design has separate software settings within TunerStudio.  And choosing the wrong option can result in destroying components – on megasquirt or burning up something under your engine bay.

 

 

ms_whats_important

 

OK, I understand what I need!

Once you understand what the 3 components above, you can shop for Megasquirt.   Personally, I recommend DIYAutotune.com. They don’t pay me anything.  I refer to them because the technical support is excellent and the quality is way above par.  I’ve never had a technical problem with one of their units.  And a single technical problem can easily cost you 24, 48, 72 hours of work…

If you’re like me – time constrained – you can buy pre-assembed units from them directly.  Within those pre-assembed units, they can often customize the input and output circuits if necessary for a relatively minor cost.   Here’s the list of their units and a page that compares what they each can do: http://www.diyautotune.com/faq/megasquirt_efi_ecu_options_wirein.htm

Prices range from: $269 for Megasquirt-I to $659 for Megasquirt-3 with an expansion board (MS3X).

If you know the 3 categories of stuff that I outlined above, simply call them up and they’ll give you the support options.

 

I want to build it myself or I’ll need to make changes to my unit:

First, I’ve never built megasquirt myself.  I’m an electrical engineer by education and I consider it a moderately complicated task as an electrical engineer.  I wouldn’t recommend it unless you’ve done board level repairs and are very detail oriented.

A list of all Megasquirt manuals can be found here: http://msextra.com/doc/index.html#ms3

These manuals can tell you, for your type of unit, what you need to do to support your tach in, injection out, and ignition out designs on your unit.

 

Cam and Crank Triggers 2000 2RZ:

My engine (2000) is a “coil pack” motor.  Prior motors, < 1999 were distributor motors.   I find distributors distasteful.  They’re a bit inaccurate due to mechanical timing slop and the distributor that’s in some vehicles (like the 22RE) has 4 pickup points.  So it can give you 4 points of accuracy in 720 degrees of rotation.  That’s not very accurate.

The 2000 2RZ and 3RZ are crank trigger.   The crank trigger wheel is 36 teeth, with 2 teeth missing.  This is called “36-2”.  So essentially you have 34 points of reference for every 360 degrees of rotation… That’s 17 times the resolution of the 22RE.  Here’s a look at the trigger on 2000 a 2RZ or 3RZ

 

Both the 2rz and 3rz have the following firing order: 1-3-4-2

 

  • Trigger wheel: 36-2
  • Tooth #1: 95deg
  • Crank sensor: VR (3 wire: shield, ground, +12v)
  • Cam sensor: VR (3 wire: shield, ground, +12v)

 

Side note – with two ignition triggers, you can MS3 manual for the different combinations, page 116.

Crank Sensor, type 36-2 tooth:

2rz_pan_sensor

Crank trigger sensor location. 3 wire. Shield, Ground, 12v

2rz_crank_trigger

Actual 2rz / 3rz crank trigger. 36 tooth – 2 missing teeth (known as 36-2)

 

 

2rz_cam_sensor

2RZ / 3RZ Cam sensor – single trigger

 

2rz_3rz_crank_sensor_location

Location of the crank sensor

 

It appears that both of these sensors appear to be VR type sensors.  That is, they’re shown as 2-wire sensors in wiring diagrams.  In reality, if you gut the harness and the connector, there is 3 wires, so it’s confusing…  The 3rd wire is a shield/ground.

 

2rz_3rz_crank_sensor_oem

Actual OEM sensor. 3 wires at the connector. 2 wires at the sensor.

2000_2rz_3rz_triggers

2 wire sensors, the 3rd wire is a shield/ground.

 

 

2rz_cam_crank_sensors

 

FYI: Tests to determine hall or VR (the 2rz / 3rz are VR type)

  • VR Sensor: If 2 of the wires from the sensor have continuity (probably some number of ohms <400) regardless of which order the red/black leads are connected, it is probably a VR sensor with a shield.
  • Hall Sensor: If 2 of the leads show continuity one direction and shows open when the leads are reversed, it is probably a hall sensor.

Testing your factory sensors:

2rz_Cam_Crank_sensor_service_data

 

 

 

Note Paradise racing has a “kit” to convert over to digital sensors (hall sensors), which would likely be more a little easier to use.

 

 

The VR sensors require that MS3 is jumpered correctly (V3.57 board:

Read this to setup MS3 / MS3X on the 3.57 board for VR

V357_board

  • P1 jumper across positions 1 and 2 enables the variable reluctance (VR) circuit.
  • J1 3 – 4 enables VR (variable reluctor) operation (non-inverted)
  • With a small screwdriver, turn the pots, R52 and R56, 7 turns anticlockwise (sometimes you may feel a “click”
    when the end position is reached, they can’t be damaged by turning too far.) This sets them up for most VR
    sensors.
  • For my setup, I found that I went 7 turns anticounterclockwise on R52/R56 and then one turn clockwise.

You need to also make pot adjustments to the MS3X daughter board:

ms3x-jps

Remove the jumper at JP7 and adjust the pots (adjustment for cam input)

 

 

Before you go any further, make sure your cam and crank sensors are trigging MS correctly.  Use the composite logger, here’s what you should see:

cam_crank_working

Blue is the crank signal. Green is the cam signal.

 

 

Troubleshooting:

You really need an oscilloscope.    A volt meter won’t get the job done.    You can buy one for under $150.   As my old scope died, I bought:

VELLEMAN HPS140I HANDHELD POCKET SCOPE

If you don’t have cranking signal, connect the scope to JP1 Pin 2, which is VRin.  Leave the jumper off.  While cranking (with plugs out, it’s easier on the starter) – injectors off, fuel off, you should see the following:

crank_in_scoped

This is a nice VR signal.  It’s about 2.2 volts peak to peak and 2ms/divison at cranking speed (no plugs).

If you have this signal, MS3 is getting the trigger from the crank sensor.  You should adjust your pots.

 

 

 

 

 

How do I get megasquirt to power up the factory tach?  Tach signal is needed to power up the AC clutch as it’s RPM sensative, BTW…

  • The Toyota tachometer accepts a pulsed ignition signal from the coil. This signal  (frequency) is converted into a proportional DC signal that drives an analog current meter in the dash to display engine rpm. Its reading can be scaled to correctly display the correct engine rpm by adding a calibrated resistive shunt to the meter input.  Solution1  Solution2 Solution3
  • From the factory a 30v signal feeds the tach from the ignitor, what varies is how often that 30v is fired.
  • MS3X provides a “logic level” – varying frequency square wave at 0-5v or 0-12v, which might work if we can get the tach to trigger at that voltage.
  • Will an MSD 8920 Tach adapter work?  This worked for Jeff Most (22RTE) and a FAST EFI system.
  • Here’s a great thread on everything tach related.
  • And one on the toyota tach mod
  • MS3x DIYAUTOtune tach output is 0-12v, but can be jumpered to 0-5v.

 

If you actually scope the signal from the 22RE igntor, here’s what you get, which looks like 30V AC signal, note the frequency.

VASTtachsign1ms

Possible solutions:

  • Implement circuits 3 or 4 from the MS manual
  • It looks like a 10k resistor 10K ohm 1/4 watt resistor and typical tach output may work, it works for the guys doing 2rz / 3rz conversions with stock EFI.  Note this mod places a resistor in parallel with the stock resistor, which allows the lower voltage to be picked up.
22rte_tach_mod_2rz_resistor

22rte tach mod

1st_gen_tach_mod

22re tach mod

 

 

 

 

 

Installing a GM IAT Intake Air Temperature Sensor:

In an effort to keep things “stock” looking, I drilled and tapped a 3/8″ NPT hole on the underside of the upper intake.  You can buy the IAT sensor from DIYAutotune (with pigtail) – it’s about $20.

You need a 9/16 or 37/64 bit as a hole for a 3/8 NPT tap, here’s the pilot hole and position on the manifold:

2rz_TB_GM_IAT_hole

GM IAT install in 2rz upper plenum

GM_IAT_Install

Tapping 3/8 NPT

 

 

 

Wiring Spark: Using the OEM coils for wasted spark:

Megasquirt considers the toyota coils to be 3-wire (the 4th wire is unused) “logic level” coils, as they already have an ignitor.

Pin 1 – 12V power (black/red wire)
Pin 2 – 5 volt logic level signal from ECU (black / blue or brown / yellow)  – IGT1 / IGT2
Pin 3 – diagnostic signal, not used with MegaSquirt (black / yellow) – These are tied together in the harness – IGF
Pin 4 – ground (brown)

 

2000_2rz_wasted_spark_wiring_megasquirt

 

2000_2rz_wasted_spark_wiring_colors

Diagram – note ground color is wrong.

 

2RZ_3-WIRE_LOGIC_COIL

 

General MS note: MS output to  “IGT” terminals on the Toyota ignitor. “IGF” is not used.

Megasquirt3x 1-3-4-2 wiring, semi-sequential, taken from the MS3V357 manual:

2rz_semi-sequential_wiring_ms3x

 

 

wire the ms3x out put A (pin 14) directly to the coil for 1+4 and ms3x spark B (pin 33) directly to the other coil 3&2,

 

 

Fire them from the MS3x card.   Coil 1+4 (front most coil) will go to Spark A (pin 14)  output and Coil 2&3 will go to spark B (pin 33).  Outputs are fired in order: ABCD.  So we’ll fire AB, AB, set it to wasted spark.

 

 

Toyota Engine Temperature sensor (will require MS reconfiguration) :

Megasquirt assumes that sensors are GM-spec.  This often isn’t the case.  Here is the 2RZ engine temperature sensor:

2rz_temp_sender1

I measured values to get a resistance curve for this sensor:

2rz_ecu_temp_sensor

Temperature    Ohms

163F                        379 ohms

70F                         2479 ohms

35F                        5355 ohms

To use these,  TunerStudio, click ‘Tools > Calibrate Thermistor Tables’.  Make sure ‘Coolant Temperature Sensor’ is selected at the top.

DIYAutotune lists similar values for the 5VZFE.  Here’s what you plug in:

thermistor_values_2rz_toyota

 

Throttle position sensor Wiring :
Yellow : (signal out)
Green/yellow trace : (5v input from MS)
Light green/black trace : (Ground)

You should calibrate it properly from TunerStudio in the ‘Tools’ menu.  Choose ‘Calibrate TPS’.
Make sure the engine is off, and the key is on.
With your foot off of the throttle, click the ‘Closed Throttle ADC Count – GET CURRENT’ Button.
Put the throttle to the floor.  With your foot fully depressing the throttle, click the ‘Full Throttle ADC Count – GET CURRENT’ Button.
Click Close.

 

2000_tacoma_tps_wiring

 

Injectors and injector wiring:

The 22RE, 22rte, 2RZ, and 3rz all use 11mm injectors.

If you just want to go buy a set, a good vendor is OsideTiger, who has 540cc/min 11mm injectors for under $170.   These come with injector pig-tails.  They get their injectors from Nikki in Japan.

Witchhunter has a good page on different injector connectors.  Stock injectors use a “Japanese oval” type connector..  And they have a good injector flow rate guide.

Here’s another good guide – with some application information.

And Info on various Toyota Injectors taken from a Miata turbo page:

Toyota_injector_data Toyota_injector_data2

2RZ-FE’s came with a couple injector options:

  • 1995 – 9/2000: “blue top” PN 23250-75040 ~265cc/min @ 43psi.  Denso top feed.   Should be around 14 ohms. Denso connector.
  • 10/2000 – 2004:”pink top” PN 23250-75080.   ~325 cc/min @ 43psi.  Denso top feed.  Should be around 14 ohms.  Denso connector.

 

2rz_injector_close_blue2rz_injector_close

 

Bosche EV1 type (left).  Denso type on the right.

Possible upgrades to use with MS3X (stand alone ECU only):

  • 195500-2020 550cc RX7 Injectors (high impedance)
  • 195500-2010 460cc – Red Top 89-91 RX7 (non-turbo) (high impedance)
  • 195500-5740 440cc – Blue Top 89-92 RX7 (non-turbo) (high impedance)
  •  195500-1370 1988 RX-7 550cc, purple top (high impedance)
  • 195500-1350 1988 RX-7 4600cc, purple top (high impedance)
  • 195500-4450, GB 84212332, Denso 297-0041, Mazda 297-0041, MRX8 injector, yellow, newer denso style, 425cc, easy to find
    • MS Settings: 1.00 deadtime @ 13.2, batt correction .07
  • N3H213250, N3H2-13-250, 13-2500-N3H2, blue, RX8 automatic secondary, 480cc
  • 195500-4460,  Denso 297-0042 , GB 842-12331?,  RX8 injector, blue, newer denso style, high impedance, 540cc *Recommended

One place to buy them: http://www.fuelinjector.citymaker.com/MAZDA_FUEL_INJECTORS.html

Be careful:

Mazda RX7 Denso 460 injectors are labelled 195500-1350 (both low and high resistance models).
Mazda RX7 tan top Denso 550 injectors are low resistance with a center notch in the electrical connector.
Mazda RX7 purple top 550 injectors are high resistance with an offset notch on the electrical connector.
Both of these 550 injectors are marked 195500-1370.

 

Toyota injector impedance can be identified by the connector, connector guide away from the clip = low impedance, connector guide near the clip = high impedance.

Toyota_injector_resistance_and_ID

I bought  89-91 S5 RX7 Turbo Fuel Injectors, 550cc/min, high impedance, denso connector, 195500-2020 from osidetiger @ $180:

Oside_injectors_1146_550cc

 

2000 Tacoma 2rz wire trace:

Injector 1  (front):
Stock ecu Black/red trace (12v)
Stock ecu White/Red (trigger to ground)
Injector 2 :
Stock ecu Black/red trace (12v)
Stock ecu White (trigger to ground)
Injector 3 :
Stock ecu Black/red trace (12v)
Stock ecu Red (trigger to ground)
Injector 4 :
Stock ecu black/red trace (12v)
Stock ecu Red/Blue (trigger to ground)

 

2000_2rz_injector_wiring

OEM injector wiring

 

 

MS3 and MS3x fuel wiring (injector wiring):

To do sequential, you need to wire injectors to the MS3x output (above).  However, you can’t do this if you have low impedance injectors.

MS3 supports only semi-sequential, but will do low impedance injectors.

See: MS3 manual on impedance.

 

 

Generic MS3 wiring, If you do low-impedance injectors, you must wire fuel to the DB37 in non-sequential:

ms3_generic_wiring

 

If you do high impedance, you can wire for sequential, you wire to the MS3x connector:

2rz_semi-sequential_wiring_ms3x

 

 

IAC Idle Air Control

The 2rz has a 3-wire PWM type idle air control mounted under the throttle body.

It’s a PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) idle valve that has two directions: Forwards (higher idle) and backwards (lower idle).

2000_tacoma_2rz_IAC_Wiring

2rz_IAC_operation

Toyota_2rz_IAC_Control

 

The 2RZ/3RZ uses a PWM IAC, which requires megasuirt modification for V2.2 and V3.0 baord.  It is not needed on PCB 3.57 SMT ECUs.

Recommended megasquirt settings:

  •  valve freq in ‘PWM idle settings’ to 8 (its maximum)
  •  ‘PWM idle cranking duty’
  • ‘Idle PWm duty table’
  •  The dropoff at 170′ in the ‘PWM idle duty cycle’ settings essentially turns off the IAC once the engine is warmed.
megasquirt_2rz-IAC-settings-edited_customtacos

Settings for PWM IAC

 

And alternate solution would be to use the custom IAC that DIYAutotune makes along with a Jeep IAC (just connect to a vacuum port).  Total cost?  Around $100.

 

MS3x-3-wire_IAC

Taken from: http://msextra.com/doc/ms3/hardware.html

1988 4runner and 2000 Tacoma wiring:

I built myself wiring cheat sheet that has the main wiring references that I’ll need, which are the 1988 4runner and 2000 Tacoma wiring diagrams.  My plan is to do the following:

Megasquirt -> Factory 1988 4runner harness -> 2RZ motor

I’m going to keep the 4runner as “original” as possible and use existing wiring.  I gutted the wiring from the Tacoma harness, basically traced wires from sensors back to the ECU connector and cut them off.

I used the following to “rebuild” the custom harness:

 

 

Factory SR5 tach?  Tach signal is needed to power up the AC clutch as it’s RPM sensative, BTW…

  • The Toyota tachometer accepts a pulsed ignition signal from the coil. This signal  (frequency) is converted into a proportional DC signal that drives an analog current meter in the dash to display engine rpm. Its reading can be scaled to correctly display the correct engine rpm by adding a calibrated resistive shunt to the meter input.  Solution1  Solution2 Solution3
  • From the factory a 30v signal feeds the tach from the ignitor, what varies is how often that 30v is fired.
  • MS3X provides a “logic level” – varying frequency square wave at 0-5v or 0-12v, which might work if we can get the tach to trigger at that voltage.
  • Will an MSD 8920 Tach adapter work?  This worked for Jeff Most (22RTE) and a FAST EFI system.
  • Here’s a great thread on everything tach related.
  • And one on the toyota tach mod
  • MS3x DIYAUTOtune tach output is 0-12v, but can be jumpered to 0-5v.  Use the “Tach mod” with the 0-12v megasquirt output.  This will deal with the factory tach and provide input for the AC amplifier (if you leave the circuit intact)
  • The tach “input” wire is on the drivers side, connected to the igniter.  It’s a green plug with a Black and Black/Red wire.  The tach input is Black.  Connect this to MS3 tach out.

 

Here’s the diagram of the factory 22re igniter / coil setup.

22re_coil_igniter_wiring

 

If you actually scope the signal from the 22RE igntor, here’s what you get, which looks like 30V AC signal, note the frequency.

VASTtachsign1ms

Possible solutions:

  • Implement circuits 3 or 4 from the MS manual
  • It looks like a 10k resistor 10K ohm 1/4 watt resistor and typical tach output may work, it works for the guys doing 2rz / 3rz conversions with stock EFI.  Note this mod places a resistor in parallel with the stock resistor, which allows the lower voltage to be picked up.  (Edit – this works, proven with SR5 tach)
22rte_tach_mod_2rz_resistor

22rte tach mod

1st_gen_tach_mod

22re tach mod

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proposed Software settings, with wasted spark (untested), MS3X:

  • Ignition Options / Wheel Decoder
    • Spark Mode: Toothed Wheel
    • HEI/GMDIS: Off
    • Skip Pulses: 3
    • Ignition Input Capture: Rising Edge (note, this depends on how you wired your VR polarity)
    • Spark Output:  Going High (Inverted)  – Per DIYAutotune and example
    • Number of Coils: Wasted Spark
    • Spark Hardware In Use: MS3X spark
    • Cam Input: MS3X Cam in
    • Trigger Wheel Arrangement: Dual Wheel with missing tooth
    • Trigger Wheel Teeth: 36
    • Missing Teeth: 2
    • Tooth #1 Angle deg BTDC: 95
    • Main Wheel Speed: Crank Wheel
    • Second Trigger Actie On: Falling Edge
    • Fixed Advance: Use Table
    • Use Prediction: 1st Derivative Predication
    • Cranking Dwell (ms): 3.3
    • Cranking Advance (degrees): 12
    • Toyota Multiplex: Off
    • Dwell Type: Standard Dwell
    • Use Dwell Table: Off
    • Nominal Dwell (ms): 3.0
    • Spark Duration (ms): 1.0
    • Spark Hardware Latency: 0
    • Spark Trim: Off

 

 

Other:

  • Ignition settings:
    • 36-2 wheel (crank), MS settings:
    • Single Wheel, missing tooth
    • Trigger Wheel Teeth = 36
    • Missing Teeth = 2
    • Tooth Angle  (BTDC) = 95 degrees
    • Ignition Input Capture = Rising Edge (depends on VR polarity)
    • Spark Output = Going Low (Normal)  *This must be set* OR is it Going High (Inverted)  – Per DIYAutotune and example
    • Number of Coils = Wasted Spark
    • Spark Trigger hardware = LED Spark
    • Cranking Dwell 3.8 MS
    • Maximum Dewll duration 2.9
    • Maximum Spark duration = .5  (subject to change)

 

  • Fuel settings (untested):
    • required fuel is 14.6 (based on 280cc injectors)
    • Squirts per engine cycle = 4
    • Injector Staging = Alternating

 

Proposed settings, coil-on-plug from  MSnE:

  • Toothed Wheel
  • Cam Signal: ON
  • Ignition Input Capture: Rising Edge (depends on VR polarity)
  • Spark Output: Going High (Inverted)  –
  • Number of Coils: wasted spark
  • Spark Hardware in use: MS3X spark
  • Cam input: MS3X Cam in
  • Trigger wheel arrangement: Dual wheel with missing tooth
  • Trigger wheel teeth: 36
  • Missing Teeth: 2
  • Tooth #1 Angle: 95
  • Main wheel speed: Crank Wheel
  • Second trigger active on: Falling Edge

 

 

I don’t care about all that.. What did you do?

  • I bought an MS3X unit from DIYAutotune.  That unit is here.  You can do what I did below with an MS3 or even an MS-I with the right hardware.
  • I chose to do batch injection, mainly because my 1998 4runner wiring only supports one batch of injectors.
  • I chose to do crank trigger for a 36-2 wheel.  Truck came with it.
  • I chose to do “wasted spark” – just like OEM.
  • I did not use the cam sensor.  If you use this, you can move to sequential injection and coil-on plug style ignition.  MS3X supports it.
  • I used DIY Autotune’s MS3x wire harness and MS3 generic harness.  About $125 in wires along for a 10′ section.  I then stripped out the wires that I don’t need.  The DB37 connectors that are crimped, you just push them out (takes a bit of force) with an appropriate screwdriver (very small).
  • HERE is my final wiring diagram.
  • I drilled a hole in the firewall, and I run my MS harness through there:

megasquirt_harness_firewall

 

 

 My particular wiring

Megasquirt pin out and function MS3 / MS3X

ms3x-harness_colors

 

Building the Harness:

MS3x_harness_with_ecu_connector MS3x_harness MS3x_haress_2rz ECU_connector_to MS3x-3 ECU_connector_to MS3x-2 ECU_connector_to MS3x-1

 

Building the Harness and Putting it in the truck.  Note, I used the factory ECU for power and fuel pump control:

MS3x_in_truck

I installed it under the passenger seat.

 

Wiring the injectors:

I used part of the 2rz harness that I bought and wired this into the MS3X harness.  4 wires (one per injector) + 12V switched source.  To “fire” injectors MS3X grounds the wire.  Order is critical as I enabled sequential injection.

ms3x_injector_wiring

ms3x_injector_wires

MS3X Injector wires (4)

2rz_injector_wires

1999 2rz injector wires (5) – 4 injectors plus 12v source

2RZ harness                 MS3X                                                Function

White/Red                  White                                                  Spark A – Injector #1  (front injector)

White                           White/Pink                                        Spark D – Injector #2

Red                             White/Orange                                      Spark B – Injector #3

Red/Blue                     White/Lt. Green                                Spark C – Injector #4 (rear injector)

 

Red (12v source, I added this, it connects to all 4 injectors) – this goes to a 12V switched source or the 4runner resistor box 12V – you need to remove that resistor box if you use high impedance injectors.

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  1. […] Robby, There is no definite answer because different V8s have different ignition systems. What works for one may not work for the other. The LS motors are usually coil-on-plug, but you didn't tell us what you're using to drive the EFI? Stock GM or other… Do you know what the "tach signal" looks like? The toyota tach expects a particularly higher-than-normal voltage signal. The "resistor mod" (or similiar) is typically reducing the voltage divider so that the tach sees the correct signal. When I scoped the stock signal (on a 1988) – it looked like a 30V variable frequency signal. Most signals are variable frequency, but it's getting that 30v that is needed to trigger the tach. More than you ever wanted to know – search for "tach" over at: Megasquirt Planning for a 1999+ 2RZ or 3RZ | Installing turbo 2rz into a 1988 4runner […]